Sometimes only small changes in configuration files or the registry are required, sometimes binary hacks on the executable itself are required to fix bugs. If a software development kit e.
These found fixes are typically packed to user deployable patches e. If the source code is available, support can by provided most effectively. Sometimes the source code is released intentionally,    sometimes by leaking    or mistake,  such as what happened with the game engine of the Thief series. While no court cases have directly addressed the legal ramifications of unofficial patches, similar cases have been tried on related issues; the case of Galoob v. Nintendo found that it was not copyright infringement by a user to apply an unauthorized patch to a system while the scope was very specific to the Game Genie.
On the other hand, the case Micro Star v. FormGen Inc. In Sega v. Accolade , the 9th Circuit held that making copies in the course of reverse engineering is a fair use, when it is the only way to get access to the "ideas and functional elements" in the copyrighted code, and when "there is a legitimate reason for seeking such access". According to Copyright law of the United States 17 U.
Bernstein professor at the University of Illinois at Chicago. Reception of unofficial patches is mixed, but by large, copyright holders are ambivalent; when the software is not considered commercially viable unofficial patches are ignored by the copyright holder as it is not seen as a source of lost revenue.
Sometimes the copyright holder actively support the patching and fixing efforts of a software community,  sometimes even by releasing the source code under a software license which allows the software community the continued software support by themselves. The free and open source software movement was founded in the s to solve the underlying problem of unofficial patches, the limited possibility for user self-support in binary only distributed software due to missing source code. Free and open source software demands from distributed software the availability of source code, which prevents the technical problems and legal uncertainties of binary only user patching of proprietary software.
Computing platform A computing platform or digital platform is the environment in which a piece of software is executed. It may be the hardware or the operating system a web browser and associated application programming interfaces, or other underlying software, as long as the program code is executed with it. Computing platforms have different abstraction levels, including a computer architecture, an OS, or runtime libraries. A computing platform is the stage.
A platform can be seen both as a constraint on the software development process, in that different platforms provide different functionality and restrictions. For example, an OS may be a platform that abstracts the underlying differences in hardware and provides a generic command for saving files or accessing the network. Platforms may include: Hardware alone, in the case of small embedded systems.
Embedded systems can access hardware directly, without an OS. An application, such as a spreadsheet or word processor, which hosts software written in an application-specific scripting language, such as an Excel macro. This can be extended to writing fully-fledged applications with the Microsoft Office suite as a platform. Software frameworks.
Cloud computing and Platform as a Service. Extending the idea of a software framework, these allow application developers to build software out of components that are hosted not by the developer, but by the provider, with internet communication linking them together; the social networking sites Twitter and Facebook are considered development platforms. A virtual machine such as the Java virtual machine or.
Applications are compiled into a format similar to machine code, known as bytecode , executed by the VM. A virtualized version of a complete system, including virtualized hardware, OS, storage; these allow, for instance, a typical Windows program to run on. Some architectures have multiple layers, with each layer acting as a platform to the one above it. In general, a component only has to be adapted to the layer beneath it. For instance, a Java program has to be written to use the Java virtual machine and associated libraries as a platform but does not have to be adapted to run for the Windows, Linux or Macintosh OS platforms.
Operating system An operating system is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs.
Time-sharing operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may include accounting software for cost allocation of processor time, mass storage and other resources. For hardware functions such as input and output and memory allocation, the operating system acts as an intermediary between programs and the computer hardware, although the application code is executed directly by the hardware and makes system calls to an OS function or is interrupted by it. Operating systems are found on many devices that contain a computer — from cellular phones and video game consoles to web servers and supercomputers; the dominant desktop operating system is Microsoft Windows with a market share of around MacOS by Apple Inc.
Linux distributions are dominant in supercomputing sectors.
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Other specialized classes of operating systems, such as embedded and real-time systems, exist for many applications. A single-tasking system can only run one program at a time, while a multi-tasking operating system allows more than one program to be running in concurrency; this is achieved by time-sharing, where the available processor time is divided between multiple processes. These processes are each interrupted in time slices by a task-scheduling subsystem of the operating system.
Multi-tasking may be characterized in co-operative types. In preemptive multitasking , the operating system slices the CPU time and dedicates a slot to each of the programs. Unix-like operating systems, such as Solaris and Linux—as well as non-Unix-like, such as AmigaOS—support preemptive multitasking. Cooperative multitasking is achieved by relying on each process to provide time to the other processes in a defined manner. Single-user operating systems have no facilities to distinguish users, but may allow multiple programs to run in tandem.
A multi-user operating system extends the basic concept of multi-tasking with facilities that identify processes and resources, such as disk space, belonging to multiple users, the system permits multiple users to interact with the system at the same time.
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Time-sharing operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may include accounting software for cost allocation of processor time, mass storage and other resources to multiple users. A distributed operating system manages a group of distinct computers and makes them appear to be a single computer; the development of networked computers that could be linked and communicate with each other gave rise to distributed computing.
Distributed computations are carried out on more than one machine; when computers in a group work in cooperation, they form a distributed system. In an OS, distributed and cloud computing context, templating refers to creating a single virtual machine image as a guest operating system saving it as a tool for multiple running virtual machines. The technique is used both in virtualization and cloud computing management, is common in large server warehouses.
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Embedded operating systems are designed to be used in embedded computer systems, they are designed to operate on small machines like PDAs with less autonomy. They are able to operate with a limited number of resources, they are compact and efficient by design. Windows CE and Minix 3 are some examples of embedded operating systems.
A real-time operating system is an operating system that guarantees to process events or data by a specific moment in time. A real-time operating system may be single- or multi-tasking, but when multitasking, it uses specialized scheduling algorithms so that a deterministic nature of behavior is achieved. An event-driven system switches between tasks based on their priorities or external events while time-sharing operating systems switch tasks based on clock interrupts.
A library operating system is one in which the services that a typical operating system provides, such as networking, are provided in the form of libraries and composed with the application and configuration code to construct a unikernel : a specialized, single address space, machine image that can be deployed to cloud or embedded environments.
Early computers were built to perform a series of single tasks, like a calculator. Basic operating system features were developed in the s, such as resident monitor functions that could automatically run different programs in succession to speed up processing.
Operating systems did not exist in their more complex forms until the early s. Hardware features were added, that enabled use of runtime libraries and parallel processing; when personal computers became popular in the s, operating systems were made for them similar in concept to those used on larger computers. In the s, the earliest electronic digital systems had no operating systems. Electronic systems of this time were programmed on rows of mechanical switches or by jumper wires on plug boards. These were special-purpose systems that, for example, generated ballistics tables for the military or controlled the pri.
Fair use Fair use is a doctrine in the law of the United States that permits limited use of copyrighted material without having to first acquire permission from the copyright holder.
Fair use is one of the limitations to copyright intended to balance the interests of copyright holders with the public interest in the wider distribution and use of creative works by allowing as a defense to copyright infringement claims certain limited uses that might otherwise be considered infringement; the Statute of Anne , an act of the Parliament of Great Britain , created copyright law to replace a system of private ordering enforced by the Stationers' Company.
The Statute of Anne did not provide for legal unauthorized use of material protected by copyright. In Gyles v Wilcox , the Court of Chancery established the doctrine of "fair abridgement", which permitted unauthorized abridgement of copyrighted works under certain circumstances.
Over time, this doctrine evolved into the modern concepts of fair dealing. Fair use was a common-law doctrine in the U. The term "fair use" originated in the United States. Although related, the limitations and exceptions to copyright for teaching and library archiving in the U. A similar-sounding principle, fair dealing, exists in some other common law jurisdictions but in fact it is more similar in principle to the enumerated exceptions found under civil law systems.
Civil law jurisdictions have other exceptions to copyright. In response to perceived over-expansion of copyrights, several electronic civil liberties and free expression organizations began in the s to add fair use cases to their dockets and concerns; these include the Electronic Frontier Foundation , the American Civil Liberties Union , the National Coalition Against Censorship , the American Library Association , numerous clinical programs at law schools, others. The " Chilling Effects " archive was established in as a coalition of several law school clinics and the EFF to document the use of cease and desist letters.
Most in , Stanford University began an initiative called "The Fair Use Project " to help artists filmmakers, fight lawsuits brought against them by large corporations. Examples of fair use in United States copyright law include commentary, search engines, parody , news reporting and scholarship. Fair use provides for the legal, unlicensed citation or incorporation of copyrighted material in another author's work under a four-factor test; the U.
Supreme Court has traditionally characterized fair use as an affirmative defense, but in Lenz v. Universal Music Corp. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit concluded that fair use was not a defense to an infringement claim, but was an expressly authorized right, an exception to the exclusive rights granted to the author of a creative work by copyright law: "Fair use is therefore distinct from affirmative defenses where a use infringes a copyright, but there is no liability due to a valid excuse, e. In determining whether the use made of a work in any particular case is a fair use the factors to be considered shall include: the purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for nonprofit educational purposes; the fact that a work is unpublished shall not itself bar a finding of fair use if such finding is made upon consideration of all the above factors.
The four factors of analysis for fair use set forth above derive from the opinion of Joseph Story in Folsom v. Marsh, in which the defendant had copied pages from the plaintiff's volume biography of George Washington in order to produce a separate two-volume work of his own; the court rejected the defendant's fair use defense with the following explanation: reviewer may cite from the original work, if his design be and to use the passages for the purposes of fair and reasonable criticism.
On the other hand, it is as clear, that if he thus cites the most important parts of the work, with a view, not to criticize, but to supersede the use of the original work, substitute the review for it, such a use will be deemed in law a piracy In short, we must often The statutory fair use factors quoted above come from the Copyright Act of , codified at 17 U. They were intended by the prior judge-made law; as Judge Pierre N.
Leval has written, the statute does not "define or explain contours or objectives. The first factor is "the purpose and character of the use, including whether. Do it yourself "Do it yourself" is the method of building, modifying, or repairing things without the direct aid of experts or professionals. Academic research describes DIY as behaviors where "individuals engage raw and semi-raw materials and parts to produce, transform, or reconstruct material possessions, including those drawn from the natural environment".
DIY behavior can be triggered by various motivations categorized as marketplace motivations, identity enhancement; the term " do-it-yourself " has been associated with consumers since at least in the domain of home improvement and maintenance activities. The phrase "do it yourself" had come into common usage by the s, in reference to the emergence of a trend of people undertaking home improvement and various other small craft and construction projects as both a creative-recreational and cost-saving activity.
Subsequently, the term DIY has taken on a broader meaning. DIY is associated with the international alternative rock , punk rock , indie rock music scenes, indymedia networks, pirate radio stations, the zine community.